Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean and other bodies of water to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast.
Yet the borders for Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are somewhat arbitrary, as the term can refer to a cultural and political distinction or a physiographic one.
In 1900, Europe’s share of the world’s population was 25%.
The idea of a European “continent” is not universally held.
Of the million or more animal species in the world, more than 98% are invertebrates.
Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia to its east by the water divide of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression), and the Black Sea to the southeast.
England, with a particularly influential Romantic current in its contemporary human sciences, is a striking example.
Concentrated in economic and social history on the one hand, and literary, artistic and cultural studies on the other, it is often strongly interdisciplinary.
Europe is the world’s second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth’s surface and about 6.8% of its land area.
Of Europe’s approximately 50 states, Russia is the largest by both area and population, while Vatican City is the smallest.